Frequently Asked Questions
Frequently Asked Questions
After the harvest, milling is the first step that the wheat is cleaned and grinded into ‘flour’, before being processed for a tasty and consumable food.

A wheat kernel consist of endosperm, germ and bran parts. The purpose of milling is to separate the bran and germ, and obtain the ‘white’ flour from the endosperm with a fine and uniform particle size.

Wheat flour is the main raw material for bakery, biscuit and pasta industries. It is also widely used for alcoholic beverages (ethanol) or fuel (bioethanol) production.

It took a long way for the flour milling process come this far, from grinding of wheat between millstones into today’s modern production facilities.

The earliest archeological evidence for wheat seeds being crushed between stones dates back to 6700 BC. Manpower and animals have been respectively used in the history of flour milling, and followed by water and wind powered mills which were active until the beginning of 19th century.


                                              Cone Mills

Stone Milling Era
300 BC - Cone Mills by Romans
100 BC - Water Mills
500 AD - Wind Mills

Roller Milling Era
1785 - O. Evans – Automated Continious Process Water Mill
1830 - Abraham Ganz, Hungary - Cast Iron Rolls
1878 - Henry Simon Ltd established

Henry Simon has been one of the leading names in the roller milling revolution, that turned 'slow, laborious and costly' pattern of stone milling into one of the most 'highly mechanised industries in the world‘.

Henry Simon built the first complete automated roller flour milling plant for Messrs company - England in 1879.

From commissioning of our fist turnkey project, too many things have evolved within the technological development in milling industry. Today flour mills are managed with advanced automation systems which provide convenience and traceability with below advantages:

Centralized Process Management
Integrated management and monitoring of the complete process (intake, cleaning, milling, packaging etc.)

Yield Visualization System
Providing detailed reports on production figures, extraction data etc.

Remote Connection Ability
Real time support for error diagnosis and troubleshooting

Henry Simon provides one-step ahead solutions in milling automation, as we strictly work on the implementation of new digital technologies into flour milling process.

After coming by ships, trains or trucks; wheat is received to the flour mill using an ‘intake system’.

Wheat samples are first taken for laboratory analysis at the mill reception, to ensure if the wheat meets purchase specifications, and there is no sign for contamination.

According to the physical test and laboratory results (ash, protein, moisture content etc.), trucks are accepted to the intake area for the discharge operation of the wheat into the pit and steel silos respectively.

The wheat intake system (for trucks) basically consists of below equipment:

  • Truck Scale (loaded - empty weight)
  • Grain Sampling Probe
  • Truck Lift (if required)
  • Intake Pit & Grid
  • Intake Filters (for dust collection)
Steel silos are used for the storage of 7-30 days wheat stocks of the mill.

After the intake operation, the wheat goes through a rough cleaning process (pre-cleaning) that the amount of foreign materials and impurities is reduced. Then it is transferred to steel silos which provides a safe and hygienic environment for wheat storage, without any risk of damage by heat, insects, rodents etc.

Steel Silos are equipped with temperature control, mixing and ventilation systems to ensure optimum storage conditions.
The storage capacity of steel silos should be defined considering the requirement, as well as availability of the wheat, logistics etc. factors. Please contact Henry Simon technical team to provide you the right solution in the design and supply of grain handling and storage systems worldwide.
Cleaning is crucial for the removal of residues and foreign materials.

Cleaning is one of the main processes in flour milling that the foreign materials in the dirty wheat (sand, stones, husks, straws, broken or damaged kernels, black seeds etc.) are removed.
The operation is made in gradual steps as pre-cleaning, 1st cleaning and 2nd cleaning etc., to ensure perfectly cleaned wheat before milling operation.

Mechanical separation methods (size, shape, specific gravity, and magnetic separation etc.) are used in the grain cleaning process; that grain cleaning machines generally uses the combined effect of sieving, vibration, and air aspiration.

Utilizing latest technologies, Henry Simon presents optical sorters (HSREZX) for an exceptional efficiency in grain cleaning process with advanced color, size, and shape sorting features.
Tempering (conditioning) is also a subsidiary step in grain cleaning, that the grain is moisturized and softened before milling process. Tempering times in conditioning bins are 12-24hr. for soft wheat and 24-48 hr for hard wheat types. The moisture content of the wheat is increased by 1-2% after the process.
Wheat is gradually broken and grounded into a very fine product with uniform particle size – the flour.

Milling section can be considered as the ‘heart’ of a flour mill, where the wheat is grinded by passing through the breaking and crushing passages until the flour is observed. Wheat milling is actually a gradual process that it may even go through the milling machines up to 16 times to obtain a very fine and uniform particle size of flour!
Wheat bran is also mainly separated in the milling stage with using purifiers (HSPU) to obtain a pure ‘white’ flour. The bran can be also added back into the flour stream in required percentage for the production of high extraction (brown) flour.
The process flow in flour milling is identified with the ‘diagram’, which the gradual milling steps are determined by experienced milling technologists according to the raw material characteristics and desired flour specifications. Henry Simon milling technology team is ready to provide you tailor made milling solutions, with our expertise in flour milling for over 140 years.
Product handling is carried out either with mechanical or pneumatic conveying elements in flour mills.

Mechanical systems are generally used for the conveying operation of the wheat, whereas pneumatic systems are preferred for middling and the flour.

Conveying elements can be either supplied individually, or designed as a complete solution for any specific requirement according to the capacity, product type, building layout etc.

Henry Simon provides safe, hygienic, and energy-efficient conveying systems for flour mills.

  • Mechanical Conveying Elements
    - Bucket Elevators
    - Chain Elevators
    - Screw Elevators

  • Pneumatic Conveying Systems
    -  Pressurized or Vacuum Systems (fans, blower, cyclonets, airlocks etc.)

  • Dust Collection System
    - Cleaning of ambient air (jet filters, cyclones etc.)
Then the flour is either packed in paper bags 1-5 kg. and polypropylene bags 10 - 50 kg., or leaves the mill on trucks and trailers after a bulk loading operation.
The investment budget of a flour mill varies at a big extent depending on the plant capacity and process design.

And, it doesn’t consist of the cost of machinery and equipment alone. It should be considered as a complete project including the field (land), infrastructure, construction, facilities etc.

Raw material is actually the major running cost in flour milling; whereas energy, labor, and logistics are also other main cost factors.

Please contact with our experienced team to define the requirements of your flour milling project together.
A flour milling plant can be considered as a complex that consists of subsidiary sections from the grain intake to the dispatch of flour.

The area (land) requirement for a flour mill varies at a big extent depending on the capacity. For example, a 100 TPD flour mill can be installed in 2.400m² simple warehouse, whereas minimum 10.000 m² land is required for 500 TPD capacity milling plant.

The design of a flour milling plant should be made in the consideration of operability, supply chain, logistics, and sanitary conditions as well.

Henry Simon Engineering team is ready to provide you turnkey grain milling solutions including the mill design and process engineering services, with our extensive know how and experience for over 140 years.

Share this page

Please fill in this field.
must be only characters.
Please fill in this field.
must be only characters.
please check your email address
Please check your phone.
Must be only numbers.
Please check your company.
Please select your job title.
Please select your industry.
Please select your country.
You must agree before submitting.
(*) Required Fields
Contact Us